The generic name Santalum is derived from santalon, the Greek name for sandalwood. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. It normally grows in sandy or well drained stony red soils, but a wide range of soil types are inhabited. Another common tree in Mysore city is Magnolia champaka.. Infact many varieties are seen if you walk on the road during the flowering season. Kautilya’s Arthashastra (320 B.C.) The nomenclature for other "sandalwoods" and the taxonomy of the genus are derived from this species' historical and widespread use. It is yellow-brown in color, hard with an oily texture and due to its durability, is the perfect material for carving.  There is still debate as to whether S. album is native to Australia and India or was introduced by fishermen, traders or birds from southeast Asia centuries ago.. It is considered sacred in some religions, and some cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities.  The epithet album refers to the "white" of the heartwood. The central part of the tree, the heartwood, is the only part of the tree that is used for its fragrance. , Until 2002, individuals in India were not allowed to grow sandalwood. Summary. The specific epithet freycinetianum is named in honor of Captain Loius de Freycinet (1779-1840), commander of the French exploration on board of which was Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, the first Western botanist to come to the Hawaiian Islands. Santalum album is included in the family Santalaceae, and is commonly known as white or East Indian sandalwood. Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and the traditional source of sandalwood oil. Stress 11. The long maturation period and difficulty in cultivation have restricted extensive planting. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. The specific epithet ellipticum is from the Latin ellipticus, oblong with rounded ends, in reference the shape of the leaves of this species. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices.  Cutting of trees, even on private property, were regulated by the Forest Department After that they were allowed to be sold to private growers, but the product can only be sold to the state forest department. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for the treatment of herpes infections. The dermal toxicity of sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol in rabbits was reported as more than 5 g/kg.1, Sandalwood oil was found to be irritating in mouse and rabbit skin test models. Oily Skin 8. Chapped Skin 3. Sandalwood oil has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status as a flavoring agent in food by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also recognizes sandalwood oil as a natural flavoring. The plant is long-lived, but harvest is only viable after many years. Saleable wood can, however, be of trees as young as seven years. Background Information Botanical Name: Santalum album Product CoExtract: SDW/0181 HSN CoExtract: 3301.29.90 CAS Number: 8006-87-9; 84787-70-2 INCI Name: Santalum Album (Sandalwood) Co2 Oil. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Sandal (Santalum album L.) conservation in southern India: A review of policies and their impacts", "The origin and diffusion of betel chewing: a synthesis of evidence from South Asia, Southeast Asia and beyond", http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/newslett/ncnl2-54.htm, Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden - Plants: Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum, "Time to lift restrictions on planting sandalwood? Leucorrhea 7. Comes up naturally and protected tree. Its is the world s most popular and costliest wood and widely known as Chandanam, Srigandham in south India and Chandan in North. Scientific Name(s): Santalum album L.Common Name(s): East Indian sandalwood oil, Sandalwood, Santal oil, White or yellow sandalwood oil, White saunders oil. The tree is variable in habit, usually upright to sprawling, and may intertwine with other species. Stretch MarksSource: Julia Lawless, The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Updated Edition) (London: Harper Thorsons, 2014), 179-180. Oh! Sandalwood is now cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia. If this tree comes up in any house one has to inform the Forest department and one cannot cut this tree.  The name, Santalum ovatum, used by Robert Brown in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (1810) was described as a synonym of this species by Alex George in 1984. The santalols and related compounds have been identified in the blood of mice that inhaled sandalwood fumes under experimental conditions, indicating that systemic absorption of these compounds can occur.29. In a study of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats, S. album petroleum ether fraction 10 mcg/kg given twice daily for 60 days was associated with a reduction in blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c. They may live to one hundred years of age. Call us at 1 315 4971058. , The native species, Santalum spicatum is more common and extensively grown in Western Australia, but as of 2020[update] there are two commercial Indian sandalwood plantations in full operation based in Kununurra, in the far north of Western Australia: Quintis (formerly Tropical Forestry Services), which in 2017 controlled around 80 per cent of the world's supply of Indian sandalwood, and Santanol, who follow ethical and sustainable practices. This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. The survival of these cells was affected by alpha-santalol in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner.18, Additionally, various lignans from S. album were found to exert cytotoxic effects against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.19. Subordinate Taxa. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. -Botanical name is Santalum album, as I know. However, beta-santalol was found to decrease acetic acid-induced writhing more effectively than alpha-santalol.21, Though not statistically significant, leg and foot massage with sandalwood oil reduced anxiety in patients.22 Topical administration of sandalwood oil produced "harmonizing" effects (ie, a reduction in the level of autonomic nervous system arousal but no behavioral level deactivation) in healthy volunteers, whereas alpha-santalol had relaxing/sedative effects.23 Inhalational sandalwood essential oil and alpha-santalol affected various physiological parameters and self-ratings of arousal in humans.24, For the treatment of urological problems, a dose of 1 to 1.5 g daily is recommended for no more than 6 weeks. Santalum album L. Genbank common name: white sandalwood NCBI BLAST name: eudicots Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 … 1. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. It is native to southern India and Southeast Asia. The decline is blamed on government policy and over-exploitation, and moves have been made to encourage planters to grow the trees again. The wood and oil are in high demand and are an important trade item in three main regions: The use of S. album in India is noted in literature for over two thousand years. Reliable clinical studies are lacking in support of the effects of sandalwood oil. Etymologically it is derived from Sanskrit चन्दनं chandanam, meaning "wood for burning incense", and related to candrah, meaning "shining, glowing".. A superior effect was noted with a 5% application of alpha-santalol as opposed to 1.25% and 2.5%.  The main distribution is in the drier tropical regions of India and the Indonesian islands of Timor and Sumba. But it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth as a medicine for longer than 6 weeks. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental and as a low-branching wind-break, whilst its … Santalum L. – sandalwood. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Tertiary resources document the oil as having diuretic and urinary antiseptic properties.11, Sandalwood oil inhibited the replication of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) 1 and 2, with inhibition was more pronounced against HSV-1. The older the tree, better the oil reserve and stronger the aroma. The leaves are thin, opposite and ovate to lanceolate in shape. Fruit is produced after three years, viable seeds after five. Have you heard of the Santalum album? This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. Glabrous surface is shiny and bright green, with a glaucous pale reverse. Santalum album is considered in Indian to be a practical agroforestry species. Last updated on Jul 20, 2020. Some isolates of Santalum album were found to be active against Helicobacter pylori.15 S. album was also found to inhibit Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the aqueous leaf extract showing a higher inhibition zone than with the stem extract.6, Beta-santalol was found to exert antiviral activity against influenza A/HK (H3N2), with a suggested mechanism of inhibition in late viral RNA synthesis.16. Santalum L. – sandalwood. Santalum album L. is indigenous to the tropical belt of the peninsular India, eastern Indonesia and northern Australia. No, it’s not a picture album. It is usually an evergreen tree with a long life. Annual production fell from a high of 4,000 tonnes in the early 1970s, to fewer than 300 tonnes in 2011. The sapwood is white or yellow in color and is used to make turnery items. Sandalwood oil can cause dermatitis, although it is generally considered to be nonirritating to human skin. Alpha-santalol is believed to exert its chemopreventive effects, particularly against skin cancer, through the induction of apoptosis and tumor suppressor protein. Santalum album : Source: Santalales of North America Update, database (version 2011) Acquired: 2011 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Santalum album : Source: The PLANTS Database, database (version 4.0.4) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: Available for Android and iOS devices. Depression 4. The oil has mainly been used as a fragrance enhancer. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. PART USED Heartwood SYNONYMS Santalum album L. COMMON NAMES Indian Sandalwood, East Indian Sandalwood EXTRACTION METHOD Steam Distilled Essential Oil ORIGIN India Although the mechanism of action is unclear, the enhancement of GST activity and acid-soluble SH levels may suggest a possible chemoprophylactic action on carcinogenesis.17, Similarly, alpha-santalol was found in a dose-response study to decrease DMBA-TPA–induced skin tumor incidence and multiplicity, ODC activity, and DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice. Indian Sandalwood Santalum Album Chandan Chandanam Srigandha Tree Seeds Santalum album or Indian sandalwood is a small tropical tree, the most commonly known source of sandalwood.  HPTLC and GC, GC-MS based methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the volatile  essential oil constituents. The effect was dose dependent and the oil was not virucidal.12 Another in vitro study found sandalwood oil to exert inhibitory activity against HSV-2 (IC50 of 0.0015%).13, Sandalwood oil (along with the essential oils thyme, and hyssop) was found to exert virucidal activity against acyclovir-sensitive and resistant strains of HSV-1. Intraperitoneal administration of alpha- and beta-santalols in mice increased hexobarbital-induced sleeping time. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. The investigators suggested that mechanism of action must differ from that of acyclovir, given that it was effective against acyclovir-resistant strains and might be attributed to inactivation of the virus before it enters the cell.14. They may live to one hundred years of age. Common names It should be planted in good sunlight and does not require a lot of water. Sandalwood oil has been reported to have diuretic and urinary antiseptic properties, but clinical trial data are lacking. Many fragrant constituents and biologically active components, such as alpha- and beta-santalol, cedrol, esters, aldehydes, phytosterols, and squalene were present in the pericarp oils. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for its antibacterial effects. There have been reports of kidney damage with prolonged use.. Santalum album Taxonomy ID: 35974 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid35974) current name. Soil type: S. album grows in a wide range of soils but is most common in sandy or rocky red soil zones. The tree starts to flower after 7 years. The species is Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of sandalwood oil for cardio-metabolic risk. The trunk of the tree starts to develop its fragrance after about 10 years of growth. Santalum album Botanical name: Santalum album Common name: Indian sandalwood Morphological characters: Santalum album is a small evergreen tree that grows to 4 m in Australia, but in India it is much larger and can grow to a height of 20 m; girth of up to 2.4 m, with slender drooping branchlets. The central part of the tree, the heartwood, is the only part of the tree that is used for its fragrance.  Recently, the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of α-santalol and sandalwood oil were demonstrated in Swiss Albino mice. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. Scientific Name : Santalum album: Common Names : Sudu Hadun, White Sandalwood tree, Sandal This is most common in Mysore city and surroundings. The ecstatic aroma of this plant, which is not just amazing but also long-lasting, makes it so popular across the world. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Other species in the genus Santalum, such as the Australian S. spicatum, are also referred to as true sandalwoods, to distinguish them from trees with similar-smelling wood or oil.  It is threatened by over-exploitation and degradation to habitat through altered land use, fire (to which this species is extremely sensitive), Spike disease, agriculture, and land-clearing are the factors of most concern. Preferred Scientific Name. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. Santalaceae – Sandalwood family. He reported daily use of sandalwood paste on the lesions for 8 years, and a patch test with sandalwood was positive. Sandalwood is an evergreen tree native to India and Indonesia and grows to 8 to 12 m in height and 2.5 Sandalwood oil should be dosed in a resistant coating that protects against gastric secretions. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. 22 November 2019. To preserve this vulnerable resource from over-exploitation, legislation protects the species, and cultivation is researched and developed. The reddish or brown bark can be almost black and is smooth in young trees, becoming cracked with a red reveal. Santalum album is a small evergreen tree that grows to 4 m and can grow to a height of 20 m; girth of up to 2.4 m, with slender drooping branchlets. Last updated on Jul 20, 2020. Evergreen trees, to 10 m high, bark surface dark grey to nearly black, rough with short vertical cracks. In the southern Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu all trees of greater than a specified girth were the property of the state until 2001/2. Sandalwood oil has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies. S. album can grow up to 9.1 metres (30 ft) vertically. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Santalum spicatum Australian sandalwood is also used in aromatherapy as and ecological alternative to the endangered Santalum album. Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or nearly black, smooth in young trees, rough with deep vertical cracks in older trees, red inside. , S. album is recognized as a "vulnerable" species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This is the first report of the volatile composition of the pericarps of any Santalum species. The sapwood is white or yellow in color and is used to make turnery items. Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or The entire plant is removed rather than cut to the base, as in coppiced species. Sandalwood tree, though, is a native of India and the southern rather the southeast region of Asia. Sandalwood oil has a warm, woody odor and is commonly used as a fragrance in incense, cosmetics, perfumes, and soaps.1 It also is used as a flavoring for foods and beverages. Treatment (5% in acetone, w/v) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-(DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-promoted skin papillomas and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in CD1 mice significantly decreased papilloma incidence by 67% and TPA-induced ODC activity by 70%.5, Daily oral feedings of sandalwood oil to adult male Swiss albino mice for 10 and 20 days led to a dose-dependent increase on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl (SH) levels. Santalum album L. – sandalwood. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. ‘Chandana’ the Sanskrit name ascribed to Santalum album L. was known and used in India from the earliest historic times and is frequently mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit writings, some of which dated before Christian era. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age. The wood has been valued in carving because of its dense character.2, 3, 4, In traditional medicine, sandalwood oil has been used as an antiseptic and astringent, and for the treatment of headache, stomachache, and urogenital disorders. Sheffields Seed Company offers 1000s of quality seed for sale varieties with fast worldwide shipping Phone 315 4971058 Fax 315 4971059 Email seedsheffields.com When taken by mouth, white sandalwood can cause itching, nausea, stomach upset, and blood in the urine.. Not enough is known about the safety of applying … ", "Indian sandalwood production set to lose home ground edge", "Tropical Forestry Services becomes Quintis as the company shifts focus", "Comparative phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of, "Shikimic Acid (Tamiflu Precursor) Production in Suspension Cultures of East Indian Sandalwood (, https://web.archive.org/web/20110616193403/http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/379-chandana, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Santalum_album&oldid=997931764, Articles needing additional references from February 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Homepage of Professor Satyahari Dey, at Department of Biotechnology, IIT Kharagpur, India: Working on Indian Sandalwood since 20 years, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 23:14.
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